ICSI Energy is a research and development facility activating in the energy field, with exceptional equipment and instrumentation for the whole chain of the new energy revolution, from production, storage/transport to use. It has three modern and functional buildings including a number of laboratories, a conference room, research bureaus and two experimental testing halls to address hydrogen energy and energy storage by developing and testing systems and technologies that participate in the so-called “hydrogen energy chain”.
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PEM Fuel Cell Testing System
Arbin FCTS Fuel Cell Testing System is an integrated and automatic system, controlled by a software dedicated to PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell stacks testing, with a power up to 10 kW. Using Arbin patented technology for humidification of condensation points, as well as highly accurate components, the FCTS series offers a highly reliable test solution. The system includes the management of the reaction gases in terms of humidity, pressure and flow required for supplying and discharging from the fuel cell stack. The following tests can be performed: polarization curves, internal resistance measurement, and lifetime testing. The test station offers the possibility of thermal control of the fuel cell stack so that the identification of the transitional phenomena influencing its behavior in a large range of temperatures is realized.
Complete Development Line for PEM Fuel Cells
It includes: a system for producing diffusion layers using electrospinning, a computer controlled system for graphite processing for the production of bipolar plates (numerically controlled milling), a SONOTEK ultrasonic coating system for depositing catalysts on a carbon substrate, an internally developed system for assembling PEM fuel cells, a stamping or deposition system for sealed cells using the Nordson EV4 dispensing robot and a custom-made fuel cell testing stand.
5 Axes HSC Milling System IMES ICORE Premium 4030 μ
IMES-ICORE Numerical Control Milling Machine Premium 4030µ Model is a cutting equipment – a numerically controlled milling system that contains axes of translation and rotation driven by motors controlled by the computer. Suitable materials for processing are: graphite, copper, aluminum, plastic, wood, sintered materials and steel (finishing operations only). The system produces bipolar plates and current collectors to make fuel cells as well as for a number of other processes.
DMU 65 monoBLOCK 5 Axis Milling Machining Centre
The 5 Axis Milling Machining Centre is a system that allows the rapid manufacture by milling components with a complex configuration and high precision, both in the production of unique and series of parts. The materials that can be processed are various: alloy steel, stainless steel, titanium, inconel, cast iron, aluminum, copper, duralumin, plastics, etc. Among the mechanical parts that can be executed there are: molds for cold and hot plastic deformation for the manufacture of tin products (enclosures, storage vessels, laboratory equipment with specific configuration that cannnot be purchased from traditional manufacturers); plastic injection molds for the purpose of making accumulator housings, rotors with blades that have complex spatial profiles that are part of the liquid or gas transport systems; devices for fixing and assembling experimental installations.
The highly dynamic DMU 65 monoBLOCK® combines all of the stability benefits of the monoBLOCK® construction with the advantages of a fast swivel rotary table, and is the most compact machine in its class with a 8.0 m2 footprint. Equipped with an optimal and accessible large working area, flexible expansion stages, 3- to 5-axis machines and roughing and finishing operations.
Objet260 Connex 3D Printing System
The Objet260 Connex 3D Printing System is used for the rapid and efficient prototyping of component parts, models and experimental plants, as well as for the manufacture of parts and subassemblies, tools and complex configuration devices that cannot be realized by traditional methods: mechanical processing, injection, plastic deformation. It uses PolyJet Matrix layering technology, selectively spraying a liquid mixture of monomers, oligomers and photo-activators in a horizontal direction, which through a hardening process is subsequently transformed into a hard, polymeric material. After each layer is deposited, it is leveled with a roller, and a UV lamp solidifies the material, layer by layer in a vertical direction. This technology allows the mixing of 3 of the 14 available materials, which are encapsulated in cartridges, to print 3D models with transparent windows, soft or elastic surfaces that simulate rubber, polypropylene or various industrial plastics. One of the materials is always the support material, designed to support the gaps and concavities of the model itself, and is finally removed by washing.
PLS6MW Multi-Wavelength Laser Platform, Laser Cutting and Engraving Equipment
The PLS6MW Multi-Wavelength Laser Platform (laser cutting and engraving equipment) is used for the precise cutting in complex configurations, following a 2D digital model, of the metallic, organic and inorganic materials of the components of some sealing systems, as well as for the surface treatment of various materials that come into the composition of the experimental models and plants made.
ANSYS Multiphysics Software
ANSYS Multiphysics is a software environment with a workbench platform that offers bidirectional connectivity between the simulation tools included (Design Modeller, Meshing, Fluid Dynamics (CFX, FLUENT), Structural Analysis) and delivers high productivity and easy-to-use workflows. Workbench integrates all your workflow needs (pre-processing, simulation and post-processing) as well as multiphysics functionality (fluid-structure interaction, electronic-fluid coupling). ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software allows predicting with confidence the impact of fluid flows on your product – throughout design and manufacturing as well as during end use. Using single-or multi-phase model, isothermal or reacting, compressible or not – ANSYS fluid dynamics solutions give valuable insight into your product’s performance. FEA analysis tools from ANSYS Structural provide the ability to simulate every structural aspect of a product: linear static analysis (provides stresses or deformations), modal analysis (determines vibration characteristics) and advanced transient nonlinear phenomena involving dynamic effects and complex behaviours.
Ultrasonic Coating Machine
The coating machine using a modern ultrasonic spray technique demonstrated a remarkable platinum mass power density due to the deposition of the right catalyst content on the electrodes by a simple method. The control of the surface tension of the catalyst ink is fundamental to allow the catalyst layer deposition. An ultrasonic nozzle is used for the atomization of the ink. The amount of atomized liquid depends exclusively on the rate at which liquid is introduced onto the surface and deposited spray is repeatable in shape and uniformity and resilient to external disturbances. The uniform thin film coating achieved with ultrasonic retains the porosity of the electrode and does not impede the transport of reactants due to flooding of the electrode surface. Coating process is fully computer controlled and can be programmed according to the coating area. Ultrasonic machine parameters during electrode coating are: spray head frequency 48 kHz, catalyst ink flow rate 0.5 ml/min, spray head speed 20 mm/sec, spray width 5 mm, brake time between cycles (to allow drying of the layer) 10 sec.
Gas Sorption Analyzer
Automatic, high-vacuum, gas sorption analyzer with one combined chemisorption/ physisorption port (equipped for low pressure micropore analysis). Chemisorption capability is made possible with an 1100 C furnance (with fan-assisted cooling), automatic isolation of flow-through cell, and fully programmable in-situ preparation and analysis sequences. A variety of built-in options are available: TPX which uses an internal and fully integrated TCD (iTCD) for temperature programmed studies, offered with or without titration loop for pulse titration).
ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES CHEMISORBTION: Isotherms (combined, reversible, irreversible), Active metal area (area, dispersion, nanocluster size), in-situ treatment (automatic flow degassing/reduction/oxidation, evacuation, heating profiles, pressure-rise tests)
ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES (PHYSISORPTION): Isotherms (adsorption and/or desorption), Hysteresis scanning, surface Area ( BET, Langmuir, STSA, DFT, BJH),
Micropores (NLDFT, QSDFT, Monte-Carlo, t-plot, alpha-s method, MP method, DR & DA methods), Mesopores (NLDFT, BJH, DH), other (total pore volume and average pore size), Simultaneous Operation: Analysis with degassing, both physisorption analysis stations, Dosing Methods (classical target P/Po), Volume (Vector DosingTM).
MICROACTIVITY REFERENCE PID
The MICROACTIVITY REFERENCE PID is an automatic and computerized laboratory reactor for reactions of catalytic microactivity with reactor bypass, preheater evaporator, pressure control valve and other process layouts inside a hot box, which avoids the possible condensation of volatile products, at the time that preheats the reactants efficiently.
It is a single structure that contains the electronic unit, control and MFC’s system and includes the hot box where the reactor and process valves are located. The system has local control and on-line remote control, based on TCP/IP Ethernet communications with distributed control structure. A complete and elaborated security system is integrated in microprocessor, independent of the computer.
A wide variety of reactions has been carried out in our reactors: Hydrocracking, Hydrotreating, Isomerization, Hydrogenation, Hydrodesulphurization (HDS), Oxidation, Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), Polymerization, Reforming (aromatization), steam reforming, etc. with the technological solutions for a variety of catalytic processes.
KATO TECH Electrospinning Equipment
The KATO TECH Electrospinning Equipment is used for the production of organic nanofibers with diameters from 50 to 800 nm. It is based on the application of a potential difference between a positively charged polymeric fluid (10-40 kV) and its dispersion on a negatively charged target, as a nanofiber. Nanofibers produced by electrospinning have two main properties: a very high volume-to-surface ratio and relatively flawless structure at the molecular level. The first property makes these nanofibers suitable for activities requiring high physical contact, such as providing sites for chemical reactions or capturing small particulate materials through successive filtration. The second property allows the nanofibers to approach the maximum theoretical strength of the spinning materials, opening the possibility to make composite materials with high mechanical performances. These materials are used in: filtration, manufacture of catalysts and diffusion layers, textiles, implant materials, tissue repair, dressings, medicinal textile materials, composites.
Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) Spectrometer
The Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) Spectrometer is used for high performance elemental chemical analysis of the most varied types of solid and liquid samples, for film thickness measurements and for the distribution of chemical elements in element maps.
The PARSTAT 2273 Potentiostat/Galvanostat is designed for determining the kinetics of an electron-transfer process, and to developing new and improved materials via unique electrodeposition or electrosynthesis techniques. The 2273 is an advanced potentiostat/galvanostat/ FRA that consists of hardware capable of ± 10 V scan ranges, 2 A current capability, and EIS measurements from 10 µHz to 1 MHz. The interface to the PC or laptop is Universal Serial Bus (USB), so there is no need for an additional card for your system. Electrochemistry PowerSuite software is required for the 2273. The 2273 offers a unique combination of compliance voltage up to ± 100 V (power available at the counter electrode) and a maximum current of up to ±2 A. The 2273 hardware combined with PowerSINE software can perform EIS experiments from 1 MHz to 10 µHz. These measurements can control either potentiostatic (Single Sine, Fast MultiSine, or Mott-Schottky), or galvanostatic (Galvanostatic EIS) experiments. The model 2273 is equipped with a High Current Power Booster that can provide 20 Amps at 20 Volts. These higher currently handling capabilities are needed for electrochemical applications in fuel cells, electrolysers, and battery research, electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, and corrosion on large electrodes. The booster system operates in potentiostat as well as galvanostat modes.
Multichannel Potentiostat/Galvanostat ORIGALYS ELECTROCHEM SAS is intended for the research of electrochemical processes in electrolysers, fuel cells and batteries as a result of the development of new materials. Research in this field requires tools that can measure and apply high voltages and currents to investigate under real operating conditions the materials used in the construction of individual cells or the whole assembly. It has 8 individual channels and dedicated software for controlling/programming independent modules. The software includes most of the specific electrochemical and corrosion techniques: cyclic, linear, square wave, differential pulse voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, analysis by stripping technique, EIS impedance, corrosion and pitting corrosion.
EC-EL Electrolyzer with EC-G3-MEA Proton Exchange Membrane
With an active catalytic surface of 49 cm2 and Nafion 117 membrane it produces between 30-250 std cc/min of hydrogen and between 15-125 std cc/min of oxygen.
HOGEN HP 40 PEM Electrolyzer
The HOGEN HP Hydrogen Generator is a fully integrated water electrolysis system with high pressure proton exchanger membranes (PEMs) that produces hydrogen from water and electricity. The system includes an assembly of electrolysis cells, as well as all other auxiliary equipment required to regulate the operations of electrolysis and hydrogen pressurization. The system includes an assembly of electrolysis cells, as well as all other auxiliary equipment required to regulate the operations of electrolysis and hydrogen pressurization. Auxiliary equipment is used to assist system functions: circulated water, hydrogen drying, hydrogen pressurization and system shutdown. The unit contains sensors and a control board to help monitor system performance and automate operation. Net hydrogen production is: 1.05Nm3 / h (18.8SLPM) (2.28Kg/ 24h), hydrogen pressure is: 165barg (2400psi) and 99.9995% hydrogen purity, water vapor <5ppm (V), N2 <2ppm (V), O2 <1ppm (V).
Ultrapure Water Production Equipment for the Electrolyzer
The system aims to produce type I ultrapure water directly from the network water and to provide a constant flow to an electrolysis cell, at a predetermined temperature. The system allows the programming of a working regime (flow, pressure, temperature) for a determined period of time and ensures the control and adjustment of the water temperature at the entrance to the electrolysis cell according to the test parameters selected by the user, from the ambient temperature and up to 90° C, with an accuracy of 0.05° C.
Carver 4386CE.4010000 Manual Hydraulic Press
The Carver 4386CE.4010000 Manual Hydraulic Press of 12 tonnes of force is used for pasting the samples for FTIR spectrometry, the pastilles being made with molds of different sizes.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) “EasyTube®3000Ext Graphene&Carbon Nanotube Grown System”
The CVD “EasyTube®3000Ext Graphene & Carbon Nanotube Grown System” is dedicated to the growth of graphene and carbon nanotubes doped with nitrogen, bromine and iodine by the CVD method at temperatures up to 1100° C. CVD is one of the most important methods for preparing thin layers and coatings of inorganic materials of different compositions.
Perkin Elmer Frontier FT-NIR Spectrophotometer
The Perkin Elmer Frontier FT-NIR spectrophotometer in the 400-4000 cm-1 range provided with ATR accessory is intended for the analysis of petroleum products from water and soil, routine analyses for environmental quality expertise, quantitative and qualitative analyses of organic and inorganic compounds, spectrum checks.
TGA-DSC STA 449 Jupiter Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (TG-DSC)
The TGA-DSC STA 449 Jupiter Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (TG-DSC) with a working range of 25–1650°C in a controlled atmosphere is capable of performing simultaneous analyses of thermogravimetric analysis of mass loss (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Combined AFM – Raman
The unprecedented all-in-one alpha300 RAS combines Raman, AFM, and SNOM imaging in a single instrument for the utmost flexibility and sophisticated sample characterization. By combining the imaging techniques, simultaneous Raman-AFM analysis, TERS, and Nearfield-Raman (Raman-SNOM) imaging can be easily performed.
Umberto NXT Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Software
Umberto NXT LCA is a software application for assessing the environmental impact of a product or process through life cycle analysis, thus enabling comparative analysis in decision making. Also, the application offers the possibility to investigate the impact and contribution of each component of the product/process, thus offering an instrument of improvement and efficiency meant for research, industry and decision makers. Umberto NXT LCA can use information from any of the databases in the LCA domain, at present within ICSI using ecoinvent.
Solartron CellTest System (1470E) Multichannel Potentiostat
The Solartron CellTest System Multichannel Potentiostat (1470E) is used for testing and characterization under DC constant current conditions, EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and FRA frequency response analysis of a large number of energy storage systems such as batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors.
Test Station for Battery Cells
The battery test system Evaluator B30/FuelCon Test station is used for testing batteries in different charging/discharging modes, for non-invasive characterization by EIS technique during operation, under different charge and temperature conditions.
MTI BST8-10A30V Battery Charging/Discharging System
The MTI BST8-10A30V battery charging/discharging system has 8 individual channels and is a non-invasive testing method. Currents up to 10 amps with a maximum potential of 30 V can be applied.
MSK-SFM-9 MTI Vacuum Mixer
Equipped with various accessories, stainless steel, vacuum (≤-0.098MPa) and controlling working temperature – mantle (15 – 50 ° C), it allows the preparation of mixtures designed for battery electrodes, for a working capacity of 6 L. Suitable for a variety of organic solvents and other chemical environments, it allows efficiency with excellent results in dispersion and homogenization (mixing speed 0-112 RPM; dispersion speed 0-6100 RPM).
THANK METAL Compact Electrode Coating Machine, Japan
The system is intended to deposit thin layers of electrode mixture on aluminum and copper substrate, using roll to roll technology. It allows the deposition of electrode mixtures on the two-sided substrate, continuously or intermittently, with the control of the thickness of the deposited layer. It is equipped with an oven for drying the deposited mixtures, it allows the control of the speed of deposit/migration of the foil in the system, it allows the control of the working temperature.
THANK METAL Semi-Automatic Forming Machine for Pouch Cell Electrodes, Japan
It is dedicated to the formation of pouch electrodes for different sizes. Provided with IR sensors for safe operation at the front feed with the electrode sheets, it allows the formation of electrodes with high cutting quality, good relief control and a cutting accuracy of ± 0.1mm.
THANK METAL Forming Machine for 18650 Cylindrical Cell Electrodes, Japan
It is dedicated to the formation of 18650 cylindrical cell electrodes, for anode and cathode. Provided with IR sensors for safe operation at the front feed with electrode rollers, it allows the formation of electrodes with high cutting quality, good relief control and cutting accuracy. It allows to determine the length of the electrodes and the speed of the electrodes.
THANK METAL Roll Press Machine, Japan
Dedicated to reducing the porosity of the electrodes, it allows a good contact between the particles of the active material and the electrolyte that favors the electrochemical reactions.
It is provided with digital display (working speed, pressing force – max. 3 tonnes, temperature).
Desk-Top 800W Ultrasonic Metal Welder, 40KHz – MSK-800W, USA
It is used for attaching current collectors (aluminum and copper/nickel) for Li-ion pouch cells. The welding system is provided with LCD display, it allows the control of the parameters: time, number of electrodes (max. 20 electrodes).
THANK METAL Semi-automatic Winding Machine, Japan
Dedicated to the “jelly roll” type electrode/separator assembly for 18650 cylindrical cells. It works semi-automatically, allows the determination of the electrode/separator length and the rolling voltage of the assembly, provided with automatic cut-off of the separator. It is compatible with 18650 cylindrical cells.
THANK METAL Pouch Cell Case/Cup Semi-Automatic Forming Machine for Aluminum-Laminated Film, Japan
It allows the production of aluminum-laminated film cases for Li-ion/Li-polymer cells, for different sizes and depths of the cases (depending on the number of electrodes in the cells). It can be used automatically for aluminum-laminated film rolls or semi-automatically for preset dimensions of aluminum-laminated films.
THANK METAL Pouch Cells Sealer Machine, Japan
Maximum working temperature 300˚C, maximum length 300mm, cooling system, voltage 100V, current 20A, air pressure 1MPa, flow rate 30 L/min. The system is used for sealing aluminum laminated film cases for Li-ion/Li-polymer cells.
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY Vacuum Glove Box, USA
It is dedicated to electrolyte injection of Li-ion/Li-polymer cells. Provides airtight physical barrier for working with materials sensitive to contamination under inert (argon) or vacuum environment. It is provided with control unit: color touch screen controller; oxygen sensors, humidity, hydrogen, inside pressure, displaying the measured values on the digital touch screen of the camera.
Creaform HandySCAN 3D Scanner
Creaform HandySCAN 3D Scanner, with high precision (up to 40 μm/m) and speed (up to 205000 measurements/sec.), offers the possibility to make various models, not being limited by the complexity, dimensions, material or color of the target object. It allows dimensional and shape evaluation, as well as the generation of 3D CAD models, generating ready-to-use files as soon as the data acquisition is completed and can be used in all stages of product development, from concept and design to implementation and service.
Software Platform – Creaform Vxlements
It is a software platform used in synergy with 3D Creaform measurement technologies, which allows parametering and transferring files to any CAD platform using standard formats (.iges, .step, .dxf), as well as importing CAD files, allowing direct measurement to be compared with CAD models without affecting the quality of measurement or the application of the principles of geometric dimensioning and tolerance (GD&T) standards. It is designed to provide the necessary tools at all stages of product development.
CAD CAM Platform – Siemens NX12.0
Siemens NX is a CAD CAM design platform. NX CAD has the possibility of 3D scanning that allows the user to digitize and, subsequently, parameterize all types of surfaces, from simple to complex geometries, is used for 3D construction of the finished product or its parts starting from an execution drawing., sketches, descriptions and gives the possibility to perform the functionality tests of an entire ensemble from the design phase, to correct any defects/ imperfections with the real-time propagation of the changes in the entire kinematic chain.
NX CAM is an environment integrated in the same platform with which real-time processing is carried out and geometry changes will have their correspondence in modifications of the real-time processing strategy, without the need for a resumption of the entire technological design process.
OPAL-RT Electrical System Simulator
Opal-RT is a system based on real time digital simulation, hardware-in-the-loop testing equipment and rapid control prototyping systems used to design, test and optimize control and protection systems for power grids, power electronics, for energy storage applications, automotive applications and so on.
The OP5600 is a complete simulation system capable of operating with either Spartan 3 or Vertex 6 FPGA platforms. The design makes it easier to use with standard connectors (DB37, RJ45 and mini-BNC) without the need for input/output adaptors and allows quick connections for monitoring. In its standard configuration, the lower part of the chassis contains a powerful target computer that can be added to a network of simulators or can act as a standalone.
NovaSwiss 555.0218-1 Membrane Compressor
It is used for compressing hydrogen from a minimum pressure of 20 bar to a maximum of 400 bar. It is a membrane compressor that guarantees the impossibility of oil contamination for the compressed gas.
Hystersis Programmable Dynamometer
Hystersis Programmable Dynamometer Model HD815-5NA-0200 can measure a torque of up to 28 Nm, speed up to 12,000 rpm, and max. 7000 W. It is used to simulate various vehicle speeds (acceleration, cruise, deceleration) and test the performance of the powertrain.
Tektronix DP07254 Digital Oscilloscope
The Tektronix DP07254 digital oscilloscope has 4 channels for signals with a bandwidth of up to 2.5 GHz, with a sampling rate up to 40 GHz. It is provided, among others, with advanced measurement and analysis solutions for the characterization of power supplies and power converters, as well as for checking and troubleshooting automotive communication systems on various data buses (CAN, LIN, FlexRay).
EA-PSI 240V-170A, 15KW Direct Current (DC) Bench Power Supply
It is a programmable DC power supply, powered from the three-phase power grid. It supplies a DC current of up to 110 A at a voltage of up to 240 V, while limiting the power supplied to 15 kW. It has an interface that allows setting the value of the output sizes and monitoring them using analog signals 0-10 V or 0-5 V.
Hardware and Software Platform, NI’s Complete cRIO Technology
The hardware and software platform, NI’s complete cRIO technology, is designed for the design and implementation of electronic control units (ECUs) for various stationary and automotive applications, using NI LabVIEW Real-Time, LabVIEW FPGA and NI CompactRIO controllers, performing the verification of the system using LabVIEW and the real-time HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) system based on the PXI chassis.
AutoBOX/DSPACE Modular Data Acquisition and Control Platform
It is intended for real-time control in automotive applications. The platform is robust and is powered directly from the vehicle’s battery, having the function of controller/ simulator of the vehicle’s hybrid/electric propulsion system, as well as other advanced chassis control and driver assistance functions. The platform is extensible and contains:
- DS 1007 Dual Core processor NXP QorlQ P5020 with high computing power, fast I/O access; Allows autonomous booting from internal flash memory as well as USB data recording; programmable directly from Simulink.
- The HIL I/O – DS2202 module is used for HIL simulation and is adapted for simulating and measuring signals in the automotive field.
- DS4302 module – has four independent CAN communication channels, which support high speed CAN 2.0A, CAN 2.0B and ISO DIS 11898 formats.
DSPACE/Simulink Software Platform for Real-Time Control Implementation
It is used to program the electronic control systems on the DSPACE hardware platform. The software platform offers access to simulation platforms and bus systems connected for ECU measurements, calibrations and diagnostics. The platform structure is modular and flexible several software modules: Instrumentation software package and CDP_USB processor control; Software for multi-message control on the CAN bus – RTICANMM_BS_USB.
Programmable DC Electronic Loads
The Chroma 2x24kW, 600V-1680A and Chroma 48kW/600V/1380 DC programmable electronic loads are capable of meeting the needs of a wide range of tests for electrical power equipment (converters, charging stations and sources, energy storage systems), being provided with the possibility of operating manually or automatically, with the storage of up to 255 data sets. They can operate under constant voltage, current, resistance or power, as well as dynamic programming, allowing the programmed cycle of variation of charge up to 65535 times to resume, thus constituting a very powerful simulation tool.
Rigaku Mini Flex 600 X-ray Diffractometer (XRD)
The x-ray Diffractometer (Rigaku MiniFlex 600) allows the identification and quantification of the crystallinity degree of the powdered materials and the thin films (ie, crystalline phases and determination of the network constants – Rietveld, the degree of crystallinity, the size of the crystallites and the degree of deformation).
Novocontrol Broadband Dielectric/Impedance Spectrometer
Novocontrol Dielectric Spectrometer with POTENTIOSTAT/GALVANOSTAT 30V/2A central unit and sample cell is an impedance analyzer that allows the characterization of dielectric material constants (ie, ε1 and ε2) of different types of materials (metals, semiconductors, insulators and polymers) depending on frequency (ie, over 13 decades, between 3µHz ÷ 20MHz) at temperatures between 170K and 700K.
Plasma Co-deposition System
Plasma co-deposition system – AJA Int., Equipped with two dc and two needle magnetrons, allows the manufacture of different types of thin films and multilayers under predetermined conditions of carrier gas fluence (ie, Ar), at different substrate temperatures (ie up to 850 ° C). Magnetrons can be operated independently, so composite materials with different stoichiometries can be obtained on substrates up to 6″ in diameter.
VASE Woollam J. Ellipsometer
The VASE Woollam J. Ellipsometer is intended for the complete determination of the optical material parameters (n and k) depending on the angle of incidence, on the spectral range between 230 nm and 2500 nm. The analysis of the results allows to identify and quantify the thickness of the thin layers and the interfaces between them, the degree of isotropy and the depolarization factor of each layer. Additionally, the system is provided with an in-situ characterization module depending on the temperature (ie, between -100oC and 650oC) and an electrochemical cell, which allows – for example – real-time monitoring of corrosion processes at interface level in thin films.
Planetary Ball Mill Retsch PM 100 and PM 200
The Planetary Ball Mill, Retsch PM 100 and PM 200, used for the mechanical synthesis by grinding of metal alloys and of the hard-fusible oxide compounds, allows the obtaining of nano-structured powders, with a high degree of compositional and size uniformity. The PM 100 module is equipped with a controlled atmosphere grinding chamber, a temperature and pressure sensor, for real-time monitoring of the heat exchange associated with the synthesis processes. PM 200, equipped with two milling chambers (agate and zirconia), particularly allows the synthesis of ceramic compounds, at high equivalent energies (i.e., the equivalent of 33G at 1300 rpm).